FusionAuth and Proxies
While FusionAuth doesn’t require a proxy, using one offers additional flexibility.
What Is a Proxy
While the term is overloaded, for the purposes of this document, a proxy is any software which sits between your users and FusionAuth. Some or all requests to FusionAuth then pass through the proxy.
Proxies can be self-hosted or SaaS. Examples include:
FusionAuth should work with any proxy that supports HTTP. If you find a proxy that isn’t supported, please open a GitHub issue with details.
Why Use a Proxy
While you can run FusionAuth without a proxy, there are a number of reasons why you might want one:
Have different domain names which point to different FusionAuth tenants; the proxy can map between domain names and tenant Ids
Block or throttle access based on request characteristics such as user agent
Cache CSS or other static assets for performance
Display custom error pages for 4xx or 5xx errors (see this issue for more)
Terminate TLS before requests reach FusionAuth
Add additional request processing logic
Have FusionAuth requests served from a non-standard path such as
/fa/(see this issue for more)
How To Use a Proxy
This section won’t discuss setting up your proxy or proxy specific configuration. For more on that, please consult your proxy package’s or server’s documentation.
To correctly set up a proxy in front of FusionAuth, you must forward all requests to FusionAuth, and you must also set the correct headers.
Headers To Set
Below is a list of the headers you must set when using a proxy with FusionAuth. If you do not set these headers correctly, FusionAuth will not function correctly. You may be unable to log in to the administrative user interface, redirect URLs may be sent incorrectly, or other functionality may not work.
Typically this will be
The original host requested by the client in the
The original port requested by the client. This will be the port of the proxy server.
The originating IP address of the client. This varies and is used for logging IP addresses and enforcing ACLs.
The hostname of the proxy server. It should be set by every proxy server in the proxy chain. This may be different from
Let’s say FusionAuth is running at
https://example.fusionauth.io, and the proxy lives at
https://auth.example.com. In this case, the headers would have the following values:
X-Forwarded-For: The client IP address
Proxies may use different formats to set these headers. For example, IIS requires underscores and you must prepend the header with HTTP.
HTTP_X_Forwarded_Proto. Please consult your proxy server’s documentation for more details.
Here is documentation for common proxy servers, describing how to configure these headers:
FusionAuth disallows caching of non-static assets such as HTML pages with the
Cache-control: no-store header.
Never cache FusionAuth non-static asset responses.
Common Proxy Configurations
The community has provided a number of example configurations for different proxies. You can view them in the GitHub repo.
If you are running version
1.41.0 or later, please make sure your proxy is using
HTTP/1.1 instead of
HTTP/1.0. We do not support
We figured since it has been supported since 1997,
HTTP/1.1 was a good option.
If needed, you can have multiple proxies for each request. This may be useful if one proxy handles custom domain names for tenants and another handles error pages.
With this pattern, every proxy in the chain must have the same value for
X-Forwarded-Host, the hostname of the initial proxy. The initial proxy is
Proxy 1 in the diagram above.
Doing so allows FusionAuth to set cookies and create redirects correctly.
X-Forwarded-Server should change as requests pass through each proxy.
Proxies and Tenants
If you are running multiple tenants in FusionAuth, a proxy can be useful to add the tenant Id to all requests for a given domain or path. Clients use the domain without needing to know or care about the tenant they are interacting with.
Suppose we have with two tenants, Pied Piper and Hooli:
Pied Piper has an endpoint at
piedpiper.example.comand a FusionAuth tenant Id of
Hooli has an endpoint at
hooli.example.comand a FusionAuth tenant Id of
When an API request comes in to
piedpiper.example.com, the proxy can append an
X-FusionAuth-TenantId header with the value
edfcf8d6-3044-4b5b-a52a-016f17f635d6. And, when an API request comes in to
hooli.example.com, the proxy can append an
X-FusionAuth-TenantId header with the value
When requesting the hosted login pages, you can append a
tenantId query string. Simply add
tenantId=edfcf8d6-3044-4b5b-a52a-016f17f635d6 for all requests to
Locking FusionAuth Down
You may want to allow access to FusionAuth only through the proxy to enhance a defense in depth strategy. There are a few options to do so:
At the network level, using firewalls.
Using FusionAuth’s IP ACL feature (only available in the Enterprise edition).
In either case, disallow traffic to FusionAuth not originating from the proxy.
If you see the below error when you are trying to log in, ensure that all your headers are set correctly.
Something doesn't seem right. You have been logged out of FusionAuth. If you were attempting to log in please click 'Return to Login' to retry.
If you are using FusionAuth Cloud, ensure that you have added the hostname of the proxy to which the initial request has been made to your list of custom domains.
For additional troubleshooting, it is helpful to remove any proxies one at a time and try to log in. This can help narrow down the source of the problem.
When you log into the FusionAuth administrative user interface, you may receive additional troubleshooting information. If you see the below image, this indicates you need to configure the headers for FusionAuth to operate correctly.
The specific errors you see may be different based on the particular headers you are missing.
Proxying Requests From FusionAuth
This guide covers proxying requests to FusionAuth, in order to add a layer of indirection between your users and FusionAuth. The benefits are listed in Why Use a Proxy.
If you are self-hosting, you can also proxy requests from FusionAuth, such as webhooks or connector requests. You can read more about that in the Configuration Reference. Look for the
proxy.* configuration values. This functionality is not available in FusionAuth Cloud.
There are no limits on using a proxy with FusionAuth.
You can use a proxy with self-hosted FusionAuth or with FusionAuth Cloud.
When using a proxy with FusionAuth Cloud, ensure you have configured DDOS and other protections correctly at the proxy. FusionAuth Cloud’s built-in protection depends, in part, on receiving correct client IP addresses, but a proxy may mask or modify those and render this protection less effective.
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